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2. Origins of Daoist Religion

Poems for Teens. Lesson Plans. Teach this Poem. Poetry Near You. Academy of American Poets. National Poetry Month. American Poets Magazine. Poems Find and share the perfect poems. Double, double toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble. This poem is in the public domain. From you have I been absent in the spring Sonnet 98 From you have I been absent in the spring, When proud-pied April, dressed in all his trim, Hath put a spirit of youth in everything, That heavy Saturn laughed and leaped with him, Yet nor the lays of birds, nor the sweet smell Of different flowers in odor and in hue, Could make me any summer's story tell, Or from their proud lap pluck them where they grew.

Nor did I wonder at the lily's white, Nor praise the deep vermilion in the rose; They were but sweet, but figures of delight, Drawn after you, you pattern of all those. Yet seemed it winter still, and, you away, As with your shadow I with these did play. William Shakespeare Venus and Adonis [But, lo! Imperiously he leaps, he neighs, he bounds, And now his woven girths he breaks asunder; The bearing earth with his hard hoof he wounds, Whose hollow womb resounds like heaven's thunder; The iron bit he crushes 'tween his teeth Controlling what he was controlled with. They go to private laboratories for secrecy.

The Committee on the Rights of the Child has stated that under the obligation to protect children's right to privacy, "States parties must protect the confidentiality of HIV test results. Many people who are sick and impoverished lack the money either to reach government health facilities or to pay nearby, private doctors. Those who can come up with the money to pay a private doctor may be unable to afford the medicines the doctor prescribes.

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The equipment in many public hospitals is often obsolete and unusable, and infrastructure is dilapidated. So I took him to a private doctor who charged 3, rupees [U. Often people who are positive need the drug more than people who are negative but they run out. When they're finished, they're finished. It's all to do with luck whether you get drugs or not. They will give them out, but there is not a regular supply. These people have to take them every day but always there are shortages. Even for a simple flu, they don't always have medicines. Where government doctors are far away or lack medicines, some patients are unable to pay for transportation to reach them, to buy their own drugs, or to pay for nearby, private doctors.

Many, as a result, go without care. Shanthy N. Shanthy's son, age seven, was also positive, and, she said, "he is sick all the time. He took some last year, but this year we couldn't buy them. There is a doctor in the village, but he asks for too much money and we can't afford it. There is not any money to take him to Tamburam. But the railway station is far away and it costs about 15 rupees [U.

Nisha B. They have to take treatment and have to treat the family. If one of these breaks, they have to choose between treatment and good food-they will drop the treatment. As explained above, at the time of writing, the Indian government had begun providing antiretroviral therapy to small numbers of people in the six states officially considered high-prevalence and in Delhi; Kerala had promised to follow suit.

The provision of these drugs is a welcome step. Human Rights Watch is concerned that the program as currently designed will have difficulty reaching children, who have less access to health care than adults generally and even less if they are part of high-risk and marginalized groups, such as street children, children in institutions, or children of sex workers. Without more being done to collect accurate information about HIV-positive children, including how many there are and barriers they face to getting health care, many will continue not to be reached.

For most people living outside of the areas of the program's implementation, the cost of medicines and required tests, a lack of testing equipment, or a lack of doctors trained to administer the therapy leaves antiretroviral therapy out of their reach. I took ARVs [antiretrovirals] for one month by borrowing the money, but then I couldn't afford to continue. The physical illness and the psychological pain of the loss of a parent," Meena Seshu explained. Punima J. She poisoned her daughter at the same time, but we got her treatment and she survived.

She doesn't like it. The father of thirteen-year-old Dinesh T. The children found the body of their mother, hanged in their home. They had since been cared for by an elderly, impoverished neighbor. Kumar lost both of his parents to AIDS by age seven and was eventually sent to a church-run orphanage where he refused to eat-having seen his parents die, he thought that he would die as well. A local NGO arranged for him to return to his aunt's home and to receive counseling.

When we interviewed him, Kumar attended school, played with other children, and understood that he was not HIV-positive. According to Dr. Manorama, who treats HIV-positive children, "[p]sychological needs are frequently neglected, even by parents, who find it hard to talk about sex, illness, and death with their children.

For example, most child service providers do not perceive psychosocial support as an important need. The Indian Constitution in article 21 recognizes the right to life as a fundamental right; article 47 provides, as a directive principle, the "[d]uty of the state to. The Supreme Court of India held in , under article 21, "[e]very doctor whether at a Government hospital or otherwise has the professional obligation to extend his services with due expertise for protecting life.

In the National Charter for Children, which the Indian government adopted in but which does not carry the force of law, the government also undertakes to protect the life and survival of all children, to ensure " that all children enjoy the highest attainable standards of health "; and to protect children's mental health. The Convention on the Rights of the Child in article 24 recognizes the right of children to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health.

Wearing a bright green dress, she leaned against her eighty-five-year-old grandmother as we spoke. The two were low-caste and lived alone; both of Sharmila's parents had died of AIDS over two years before. With neither Sharmila nor her grandmother able to work and with no other family members, they lived off rupees U. Until the fourth grade, Sharmila attended a church-run school; there was no government school in her village, she told us. According to her grandmother, the priest paid for her school fees. Sharmila told us that she liked to study Tamil, math, English, and drawing, but that the teacher separated her from the other children:.

NGO staff working with the family noted that it was impossible to separate out the facts that Sharmila was poor, female, orphaned, HIV-positive, and low-caste as possible causes of discrimination, but, he said, being low-caste "affects the way she is treated. Here, there is more HIV among the scheduled castes. There are more migrant workers. They don't get any good food, treatment. So easily they go into AIDS. Other communities have more money and can stay healthier.

In January , Sharmila became sick with tuberculosis and, her grandmother said, the teacher told her not to send the girl to school until she was well. The NGO paid for antibiotics, vitamins, and tuberculosis medicine, as well as occasional transport to the government hospital, some four to five hours away. However, the hospital did not provide her with antiretroviral therapy. These include discrimination by teachers and principals who separate them from other students or deny them admission entirely; frequent absences due to opportunistic infections that schools do not tolerate, often because children fear revealing that they are HIV-positive in order to ask for special measures; and the loss of a family wage earner that leaves them unable to pay school fees and related expenses.

There is a direct connection between discrimination in schools and the community and children not being treated for HIV or its opportunistic infections-whether because of discrimination, corruption, or simply a failing public health care system. In addition to suffering pain and disfigurement, those children are identifiably ill and teachers, classmates, and parents of other students are more likely to suspect them of being HIV-positive.

It's when the schools come to know about the children or parents' status that they are refused," Dr.

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Failures to provide HIV positive children with adequate treatment are described in the section on violations of the right to health. Reports from other states indicate that such cases are occurring throughout the country, in some cases simply because the parents, not the children, are HIV-positive. In fact, as a Kerala doctor pointed out, with a weakened immune system "the HIV-positive child is most at risk" of catching illnesses from other children in school. For example, Idaya M.

My older daughter was negative, and this girl is positive, and I anticipate a lot more discrimination. I want this child to be fully educated and receive the best education-for this child even more than the others. Although not disclosing children's HIV status may get them admitted to school, it also keeps them from receiving special measures that might prevent them from dropping out or better protect their own health. We can't go and tell the school that the child is positive and so needs accommodation.

We put the child in school but say to the child, 'Please stay out if you have nicks and cuts. The best-publicized case of children being denied access to school is that of Bency and Benson their real names , two HIV-positive orphans in Kerala who were six and eight years old at the time we interviewed them in late According to the children's maternal grandfather, who chose to speak with Human Rights Watch in the company of a local Christian priest, Bency and Benson's father and mother died of AIDS in and , respectively, leaving the children in his and his wife's care.

Bency then stayed at home for around one year. In , he said, he enrolled her in a private Muslim school, but after four days, the headmaster told him that other parents had said "they wouldn't send their children if she stayed. But, he said, "someone in the neighborhood informed the school that this wasn't true and that she was positive.

On March 14, said a local Christian priest who had advocated on the children's behalf, a teacher came to their home and taught the children for the ten days remaining in the school term. A local political figure, Prathapa Varam Thampan, reportedly publicly attacked the children's grandfather for sending them to school, but state and national government officials responded by publicly visiting and touching the children, following considerable media coverage of the case.

By early , Bency and Benson were back in a regular classroom. Despite the government's eventual response, the case terrified families caring for HIV-positive children, who feared their children would also be expelled from school. Their fears appear to be well-founded. Human Rights Watch documented other cases of HIV-positive children being excluded from school who did not receive the attention and remedies given to Bency and Benson.

For example, six-year-old Anu P. Both Anu and her sister were HIV-positive. Their parents died of AIDS in and , a fact known people in the community, their grandfather and their uncle said. They don't allow their children to play with ours. Anu P. She attended kindergarten for three or four days.

The teacher said, 'She has skin problems so please don't allow her to come to school. The staff member explained:. The second case occurred in Thrissur district, Kerala. By third grade he had changed to a fifth or sixth school. At that school, "only two people in the management know" that his parents died of AIDS, the staff member said. NGOs gave awareness to people and taught them, and now the teachers changed. The main thing is that other parents are involved with the problem.

According to news reports, six-year-old Babita Raj, whose father died of AIDS, was barred from attending a government-aided primary school in Parappanangadi, Kerala, after the parent-teacher association and school authorities protested, and was not attending school as of October The local government school also refused to allow her to attend.

Instances of children being excluded from school because they or their parents were HIV-positive have also been reported in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. While the case was pending, one of the three children died. In contrast with the cases above, Human Rights Watch also found instances in which well-informed NGOs and individual teachers had successfully educated school officials and other parents about HIV and gained the admission and acceptance of HIV-positive children.

For example, in Kerala, two guardians of HIV-positive children orphaned by AIDS told us that teachers were able to sensitize the other parents who tried to keep the children out of school. It's how he is treated when he gets there. Her teacher subsequently sent Sharmila home when she contracted tuberculosis. The boy had told them, "I only know my parents got some disease. Then access becomes a shallow achievement. Our task is more than getting HIV-positive children in school-we must work to retain them in the classroom and ensure a conducive learning environment.

When a primary wage earner sickens or dies from AIDS, children may be pulled out of school, enrolled late, or never enrolled at all. Jaya V. Jaya later returned to school. But, she told us, she had been out of school for a month with hepatitis, when we interviewed her. Jaya threw her arms wide and said, "I like going to school this much! The experiences of fourteen-year-old Ravi K. Ravi was in fourth grade when his father, who was HIV-positive, became bedridden:. His mother, who was also HIV-positive, added, "He used to tell me this every day.

Ravi's sister, Jana K. The teacher would question me and threaten to beat me.

Beneath the Poison Tree: Forsaken

She went back to lower kindergarten [at age seven] and then to first grade. A normal child would be in fifth or sixth grade. In contrast, by the time Ravi and Jana's younger brother, Meyyan K. He started school on time and, at age eight, was in second grade. If I tell them, they won't admit the children. The cost of education, both directly and in the loss of the child's labor, can also be a significant barrier for AIDS-affected children, who already face significant economic burdens caused by AIDS.

In addition, families must pay for uniforms, books, other school supplies, and, if the school is not within walking distance, transportation. Some parents and children also reported paying exam fees usually in higher grades and assessments to improve school buildings.

Religious Daoism

As the following testimonies illustrate, school costs cause some children to drop out of school, start late, or never attend at all, and they have a disproportionate impact on girls. According to the Public Report on Basic Education in India, a comprehensive evaluation of the education system in North India,the average annual cost of sending a child to primary school in was rupees U. In Human Rights Watch's interviews, we heard total costs of education ranging from around rupees U. Now it is very difficult for them to learn in Tamil because they are accustomed to learning in English.

They ask to be sent back. Uniforms and stationery cost about rupees U. It will be a problem to find the money for travel expenses. We have to pay for the textbooks-it is mandatory. Human Rights Watch also interviewed a family in which the oldest girl, Guruswamy G. I cannot afford this. He has to go to college and learn more and become more educated. UNICEF researchers in Manipur also found instances in which AIDS-affected families were unable to pay school fees or related costs, or delayed the admission of younger children to school for financial reasons. As these testimonies illustrate, school fees and related costs tend to have a disproportionate impact on girls, as many parents value girls' education less and are, therefore, less willing to pay for it.

As explained above, the government is constitutionally required to provide free and compulsory education to all children ages six to fourteen. However, as the government itself has acknowledged, "[i]t is the massive Government school system on which the poor still rely, and even here the costs of schooling are often too much to sustain. Under the Indian constitution, education is a fundamental right, and the state is obligated to provide free and compulsory education to all children ages six to fourteen. At the secondary level, the State shall provide access to education for all and provide supportive facilities for the disadvantaged groups.

Because different states have different levels of resources, international law does not mandate exactly what kind of education must be provided, beyond certain minimum standards. But although the right to education is a right of progressive implementation, the prohibition on discrimination is not.

It also leaves them more vulnerable to HIV transmission. Women and girls' low status may leave them less able to get health care for themselves if they are also HIV-positive and results in some extended families being less willing to take in orphaned girls. Women and girls whose husbands die of AIDS may be blamed and cast out of their homes.

Discrimination in employment, education, property ownership, and inheritance may also leave them unable to survive economically. The lack of housing, health care, and income, on top of the trauma of losing a spouse, being rejected by family, and possibly facing their own deaths from AIDS, diminishes women and girls' capacity to care for themselves and their children. She said, 'I'm negative now but I am at risk because at any time, my husband can demand sex. I don't know if I can demand condoms. Women and girls may also receive less food and less health care than men and boys in the home.

According to the Indian government, parents often delay longer in seeking health care for girls than for boys, "resulting in a decreased survival rate of the girl child. For example, K. Atpudhamtold us:. Vinaya S. While he was in Bombay, I lived with his family. Only when he returned did they begin hating me and blaming me for the sickness. At the same time she loses her family's support, a woman or girl widowed by AIDS may find that she cannot replace her husband's income to support her children. Now I have to go to work to support my child. As a daily laborer I earn a maximum of 30 rupees [U.

Men can earn up to 60 rupees [U. It's the same work, but it pays less even if I do the same work as a man. Men earn 50 rupees [U. Other women told us similar stories. It's at all levels. A woman earns half of what a man earns. There is harassment-a woman is treated badly because she is a woman. It's hard for a woman to go out to work. Even without HIV, it's applicable. HIV is added on to that. Widows may also face problems getting their inheritance when their husbands or parents die, leaving them with fewer resources to care for themselves and their children.

They haven't given anything, but they have promised. I was asked to give them a blank paper with my signature. I didn't. I said, 'You have to give the property to my son when he turns eighteen. His parents had some property but now it is maintained by his father's brother. Reviewing India's compliance with the Convention in , the Committee expressed deep concern "at the persistence of discriminatory social attitudes and harmful traditional practices towards girls, including low school enrollment and high drop-out rates, early and forced marriages, and religion-based personal status laws which perpetuate gender inequality in such areas as marriage, divorce, custody and guardianship of infants, and inheritance.

Other government officials at the national and state levels simply denied that discrimination was a problem or that children were vulnerable to HIV transmission. The Convention on the Rights of the Child in article 2 requires states to take all appropriate measures to ensure that children are protected from discrimination "irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.

In addition to prohibiting discrimination, international law also requires states to take affirmative steps to address it. The Committee on the Rights of the Child has underlined "the necessity of providing legal, economic and social protection to affected children to ensure their access to education, inheritance, shelter and health and social services, as well as to make them feel secure in disclosing their HIV status and that of their family members when the children deem it appropriate.

The Indian constitution provides for the principles of equality and freedom from discrimination by the state. However, legislation, commissioned by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, was being drafted at the time of writing. As an attorney for the Lawyers Collective noted, "[a] lot of our clients can't see their cases through because they are dying. However, the policy does address discrimination and medical care, and should provide the basis for various Indian government bodies to take steps to address these issues.

Regarding medical care, the policy reads that:. HIV status of a person should be kept confidential and should not in any way affect the rights of the person to employment, his or her position at the workplace, marital relationship and other fundamental rights. We can't send a separate document for HIV, for handicapped children, for working children, etc. Some states, including Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, have taken the important step of issuing policies forbidding discrimination against children in schools, but these policies need to move beyond paper to actual enforcement.

Kerala's Health Department issued a policy in November , in response to the public attention surrounding Bency and Benson, two HIV-positive children who were excluded from school. The secretary of Kerala's Department of Education, which would presumably implement the policy, told us that the policy meant that "[t]eachers and principals are not supposed to keep out children.

But the deputy director of Andhra Pradesh's state AIDS control society told Human Rights Watch in November that he was not aware of the policy, that there was "no separate children's policy. We use NACO's policy. Monitoring was needed, he said, wherever discrimination was hitting people, in health care, in schools, and in the workplace.

The government can't do it alone. Most state officials whom we interviewed similarly downplayed incidents of discrimination. For example, the deputy director of Andhra Pradesh's state AIDS control society said that in his state, " [t]here are a few cases of discrimination like in Kerala but it is getting better. The problems of discrimination are overstated. In Tamil Nadu, stigma and discrimination is relatively less because of high levels of sensitization and active positive people's networks which have given face to the disease.

In schools so far there has been no specific discrimination. The schools education department has issued a circular about discrimination. There are no complaints from any parents or any school. As described above, our findings demonstrate that discrimination is much more serious and widespread than officials claim. While a few individual officials have intervened in particular cases, such as that of Benson and Bency, these interventions have not resulted in protections for other children.

We ask for a report if we come to know about it. Tripanthi, told us in December that his department would write to states about a case of discrimination, but:. When we asked the deputy director of Andhra Pradesh's state AIDS control society what his office did when acts of discrimination were brought to their attention, he could not say.

Capacity has not been built up at NACO. There are no direct policies or guidelines or capacity building for handling stigma and discrimination. Justice A.

But other states have not, or cover only a small number of schools. The central government is also failing to hold accountable states that do not implement the curriculum. When asked what would happen, the Secretary of the Ministry of Education's Elementary Education Department replied, "Basically it is with the states. Now we are stopped from doing awareness for eighth to tenth standard. Last time we did it there was a problem with the PTA [parent-teacher association].

I don't think the government is doing it because of the parents' objection. According to a school AIDS education program resource person in India, schools typically provide a total of one or two hours of instruction. Talking about condoms, especially, poses a problem in some states. According to the school AIDS education program resource person, "[t]he Ministry feels that children in schools shouldn't be exposed to condoms" and "the focus is on abstinence and being faithful. In schools we don't say that you can get HIV by sex. Kerala is a very traditional society.

I can't think about it even in my wildest dreams. It [injection drug use] is not here. Maybe less than one person. It's not like the USA. Here children are highly disciplined. We speak of AIDS and we say you should protect yourself. Instead of saying 'like this' and 'like this,' we say 'you don't get it like this and like this. We even do condom demonstrations. We send the teachers out because they don't want to teach it. Many times teachers go out, but they listen on the other side of the wall and then they come to us to ask us questions.

The director of Tamil Nadu's Department of Social Defense told us that his department was considering beginning education programs for street children-"our NGOs are implementing rehabilitation programs for street children by providing vocational education and training but are not focusing on health concerns and HIV. Sexual activity is taboo in our society.

It's not to be talked about with children. So there are no awareness programs in the homes. Other studies report similar findings. If they ask, they are told to shut their mouths. If they ask at school, they are dubbed as a bad boy. But when we give them a confidential forum, they really speak up. Some is there but not much. We need more education.

Programs to train some teachers and medical staff have begun; however, many more need training. The training's quality should be assessed, and officials who discriminate should be held accountable. For example, the Secretary of Kerala's Department of Health and Family Welfare told Human Rights Watch that the department had conducted various awareness programs about discrimination against children and trainings for the media on not publicizing HIV-positive children's names, [] but an HIV-positive child's name was published in the press while we were there.

In Bency and Benson's case, described above, ill-informed public officials were unable to overcome other parents' resistance to admitting the children to school at a public meeting where they reportedly gave them inaccurate information about HIV. Others told us that "[t]here is some good counseling coming from doctors. The general public also needs vastly more information of better quality. Awareness of AIDS is particularly low among women who are not regularly exposed to the media, women from Scheduled Tribes, illiterate women, women in households with a low standard of living, and rural women.

People don't even know how it spreads to others, and one woman was coming here to ask if she could sleep in the same bed with her child. The child is negative and she is positive. Even at that level, people don't know.

'A Poison Tree' by William Blake - Analysis for Edexcel Eng Lit GCSE Conflict Anthology

Manorama explained, "but they still don't believe they can get it. All they know is that it is a killer disease. In contrast, in Kerala, outside the city of Thiruvananthapuram, Human Rights Watch interviewed neighbors of two children orphaned by AIDS who told us that the public health department had come to the village and given a class about HIV.

A woman who said she attended told us, "At first we were afraid but then we learned about HIV, about how the disease comes. Sunita B. Originally from Kerala, their parents had worked in Gujarat and Bombay, the girls' aunt told us. He died there soon after, and the girls' aunt went to the center to care for their mother-her sister-who was very ill. Nisha, she said, "remembers her mother and how she died. Nisha went home with her aunt. Although she was attending a government kindergarten "agawandi" run by the Kerala Department of Social Welfare when we interviewed her, her aunt explained that there had been problems because the girl was HIV-positive.

At the beginning there was no problem. But after some time, the teacher called and she said not to send her anymore. So she called and told me. My neighbor took her back to the school because I didn't want to go back because I felt so bad. It hit me hard. Although Nisha should start first grade in , her aunt told us, "I plan to send her for another year of nursery because I won't have to pay anything.

The problem is that once she goes to school, we have to pay bus fare and other things. I am a tailor but tailors are very common, so I don't have much business. My husband is a coolie [manual laborer] and I have my own two children to look after. When Nisha was sick, her aunt said she would take her to a government doctor who also runs a private practice out of his home.

I had to pay 50 rupees [U. He doesn't examine her-I just give him the description of the problem, and he writes the prescription. I take it to the medical store and buy the medicine. Last month they gave me a prescription, but I didn't have the money so I didn't fill it. She showed us the prescription for an antibiotic, which she was still carrying in her purse.

Nisha's aunt had not told the doctor that the girl is HIV-positive. I am afraid he won't treat her. Unlike her sister, Sunita B. However, she quickly became unhappy there, especially after an incident in which the children were beaten, she said. According to the home's director, "the girl's mother was not a sex worker in the beginning, but when the father got sick, then she became. When he was sick, he lost his job and they had no income.

She didn't know about HIV or that she was infected. Sunita told us that she saw her younger sister and aunt regularly-they visited and she would go to their home for festivals-but that she preferred to live at the NGO home, rather than at her aunt's house.

They mistreat her. There is some superstition that the parents died because of the kids.