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Overall rating No ratings yet 0. How to write a great review Do Say what you liked best and least Describe the author's style Explain the rating you gave Don't Use rude and profane language Include any personal information Mention spoilers or the book's price Recap the plot. In spite of the Elector's ruling, the burghers prohibited Handel's wine from coming into the town.

All kinds of lawyers from the Leipzig University were called in to settle the dispute, but they made no headway. The Elector became annoyed. He threatened the town of Halle with penalties if they did not let the barber- surgeon pursue his wine-selling in peace. But things moved slowly in those days. Halle took no notice of any Elector. It appealed to forgotten Councils, who assembled in great state and put their hands together and did nothing.

Meanwhile the barber-surgeon had been goaded into a fighting mood. That thin underlip had become thinner yet, and straight and firm. There was a smouldering fire in the eyes. Documents were prepared — pages of documents. It all cost money. The barber-surgeon, who hated parting with 9 George Frideric Handel a pfennigs decided that his last pfennig should go to beat the town, since he was fighting for a right which he had bought with the house. The Elector wobbled.

He decided once more against the town, but gave it the right to appeal. The barber-surgeon fought on. Then some bold fellow marched up to Handel's house with a document summoning him to appear before the Town Council, and the knave threw the summons through George's window. The blood of Handel was fired anew. The insult! If the rapscallion had only delivered the document into his hands and waited while he made suitable comments thereon!

But he had hurled in his paper and run from the lion he had prodded. Again the barber-surgeon went to the Elector. Again the Elector was bored to tears. This silly squabble was becoming a nuisance. He wrote finally to the town of Halle and said that unless they desisted in annoying the barber-surgeon he would fine the town gold florins and, if need be, put in troops.

The barber-surgeon had won. Disgruntled burghers sneered at him in the streets. But the keen eye of the man never swerved or was afraid. He went on selling wine at The Yellow Stag for years, then, feeling that he could rest on his victory, he handed the licence over to the town — a victor who now performed a gracious act. But its record is necessary because the whole affair is so typical of the barber-surgeon. Could a man with that mouth, that violent pugnacity sit down calmly while they stole a single right from him which his money had bought?

Full text of "George Frideric Handel; his personality & his times"

He would have fought Europe single-handed for a case which had the vestige of right hidden somewhere in it. He was a strong man. A strong man of vast principles. Bigoted over principles. Intensely disagreeable. If he won a victory he would, in common parlance, " rub it in. Hertzberg, " Geschichte der Stadt Halle," vol. This Handel never warmed to the sun of human understanding. He was a creature aloof. Judging from the area on which it stood, the house which the barber-surgeon took to himself after his marriage must have been of considerable size, large enough, in fact, to house three families.

It is doubtful if any of the original building still remains. The biographers of George Frideric Handel, the son of this barber-surgeon, have, for some unknown reason, followed each other in making a curious mistake about the Handel-house in Halle. They have declared that the house in which the barber- surgeon lived, and in which his son George Frideric was destined to be born, was the house adjoining. They have depicted it with photograph and sketch. As a matter of fact the house that has been gilded with a fame it never earned is even now decorated with bays, with the names of George Frideric's oratorios on its plaster front, and with a bust of George Frideric over its doorway.

It has been stared at, photographed, decrepit deceiving thing. But the child who was later to decoy this world with his music never stumbled down its dark passages : that child's first cry on waking to a world of hurt and distress was never heard by its walls, its low dank ceilings. True, the boy must have played often in the courtyard that lies within its gate ; the narrow cobbled street knew the patter of his feet, the roof, ageing then, and so much older now, stooped over him as if in benison, but that venerable house, with all its fabled romance, was never the Handel-house.

The mistake has continued until it is almost old enough to claim to be veracious. The present house, Nicolai Strasse 5, which stands on the site of the musician's birthplace, was built in On 2nd May , a house in the quarter suddenly burst into flames. The parsimonious builders of those days had bunched the houses together in huge clusters, separ- ated only by the narrowest alleys, and in a very short time the Schlamm was a blazing cauldron. It was night— the original fire was only discovered at ten o'clock — and most of the respectable citizens of the Schlamm were in bed.

In a short time the adjoining streets, the Great Ulrichstrasse, the Dachritz, the Barfiisser Bare-foot monks' street made a palisade of fire about the Handel mansion, and before very long thirty-eight houses lay in heaps of charred and smoking wood. Those houses which escaped actual destruction had their backs burned away ; eleven barns followed the houses to the ash- heap, and women and children were killed and injured, or dis- appeared in the flames. How far the Handel mansion — and it undoubtedly was a mansion for the period — suffered in the conflagration there is no record, but the barber-surgeon saved himself and his family.

Thereafter, the disaster was closely followed by others, which brought increasing anxiety into the lives of the Handels. Four years later Prince Augustus of Saxony died, described as the former house of Handel, afterwards of Florke, who was the hus- band of George Frideric Handel's niece. This house then bore the number ; the old number was , afterwards A. The next following building, old number , which was rebuilt about , was put up for sale in in the Hallisches Patriotisches Wochenhlatt, and described in detail.

The large courtyard, extensive garden, side wings and " a front of twelve windows " can only be applied to the building which to-day appears decorated as the " Handel-house. Further evidence that the house at the corner of Nicolai Street and Kleine Ulrichst is the house in which Handel was born is to be found in this letter which was published in the Wiener Theater zeitung, 22nd October , over the signa- ture of a man named Pokels. All the honours which George Handel had striven for and attained in royal circles thus fell away at a stroke, and the removal of royal patronage, even by death, was a catastrophe of the utmost magnitude in those days.

The silent surgeon of the Schlamm was not content to drop back from the proud position he had fought for. One imagines the varying emotions of depression and hopelessness that passed in succession across his mind, and can picture him daily grow- ing more morose as he had been ever morose, more difficult in the family as he always had been difficult in the family since those days when the burden of his affairs first occupied his every thought.

And Anna, dropping a little more into that subservience, that easy slide downhill from the independence she had known as Christoph Oettinger's widow. Handel was disgruntled, his pride was smashed. Then the Halle Council, consisting as it did of many of his enemies, brought a charge against him of intriguing against the late Prince by supplying information about his condition to the Elector of Brandenburg, who had become the successor. They tried to harass Handel in Halle ; perhaps they hoped to drive out so gloomy a person from their midst.

But with the tough courage, which he eventually passed on to his son, the barber-surgeon refused to budge an inch. A little later his health began to fail. Possibly it was only a mental miasma that had caught him, a melancholia provoked by the agitation at the loss of his honours. He took a bold step ; he wrote to the famous Privy-Councillor von Danckle- mann.

Once again George Handel became surgeon to the Court, at first without salary. Hardly had he been reappointed than he was suddenly- taken ill. He grew worse. Would that life remaining to him, which he had said had but one year, two years to run, pass out so soon? They prayed for him in the churches ; the Superintendent Olearius, his confessor and a distant relative, came and administered the last Sacrament. It was obvious that the old barber-surgeon was dying. Then came an amazing change. He rallied.

This man, whom they believed to be gasping out his last breath, was suddenly found walking about in his room. Death 1 Who had spoken of death?

Israël en Égypte: Étude sur un oratorio de G.F. Hændel (in French)

There was so much he had to do, so much for him to think about, and Death could not interrupt these things. His recovery was a sheer achievement of will- power — the vdll-power that hustled Death away even as it peeped in at the bedroom door. He flung aside the leech, he dispensed with Superintendent Olearius, and a surprised town saw him suddenly appear, a white, slow-moving ghost, towards his seat in the Liebfrauenkirche and drop painfully to his knees, till only the shower of silver hair was visible above the pew.

For long he knelt thus, thanking his Maker for his new lease of life. Honour was restored, a new sense of ease and achievement crept into the Handel establishment, and probably no one felt the relief more than Anna. Only for a space did Fate allow the barber-surgeon any respite. Scarcely a year after the new distinction had been given, Anna Handel died suddenly. If the barber-surgeon was stupefied by the blow he did not show it. His life went on imperturbably as before.

He buried her without a cofiin, without any ceremonial whatever, just as if he were hiding in the ground some finished thing that had once been a piece of his home. In his later years he had not shown the adoration for Anna which he had when she was Oettinger's widow. Now that she had gone he picked up the threads of his life, no more solitary for her loss. But a corner- stone had been knocked out of the domestic edifice which had grown about him and become so accommodating to his 14 The Plague Smites Halle work, altering its shape, adapting itself to every call which the busy life demanded.

The upheaval did not change him ; he went steadily on without altering the lines of his life by a fraction. Possibly he spoke a little less than he did before to those about him, but otherwise there was no perceptible change in the man. The barber-surgeon never showed at any time of his life, by an expression or by an act, anything that he felt.

He took his misfortune as he took his success, with a calm, even strength.

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He was still floundering in the rut of misfortune when further disaster overtook him. Plague broke out in Halle, the last epidemic of plague Halle was to know. During the disaster nineteen of the principal citizens of the town formed a union for purposes of mutual help during the plague. The union came into being on 8th May , and each member paid five thalers into its fund, but how the money was applied there is nothing to show.

Indeed it is odd that one of the rules of the union was that the money was to be returned to the subscribers after the plague plus interest I How the plague could have been turned into a money-making concern is a problem. The members were required to invoke daily prayer hours in their establishments, and pray regularly in places of worship ; to follow with their families a moderate mode of life, consume good diet, and keep their houses stocked with good provisions. And, finally, if a member were to fail in his provisions or medicines and became infected, the others were to come to his aid from their own stores.

The nineteen members were made up of doctors including George Handel , pastors, town inspectors and grocers. Excellent fellows of high standing in the town, whose names and vocations have been preserved. The surgeon, with the years gathering as a mighty weight upon him, was left practically alone in the great house in the Schlamm, a strong, unbroken but piteous figure. Even this blow did not bring him to his knees. Six months elapsed. Not for any trivial move did he wait. All through the years since he had been made surgeon to the suburb of Giebichenstein — and exactly thirty anniversaries of the event had passed over his head — he had been a regular visitor there.

And in spite of his strange reticence for finding friendships he had so far thawed as to make a friend and con- fidant of the pastor of the district, George Taust. The Taust household had for long been a kind of sanctuary, which he visited when Giebichenstein claimed his service, possibly he dined there frequently. In any case, he was a close intimate of the family. He was now sixty years of age. The tall figure had bent, the face thinned, the mouth become more stubborn, more firm.

As he aged, his long hair whitened in curls about his shoulders. He dressed always in black, with a black skull-cap, a coat of black satin and a collar of white lace. At his age, and with his experience, George would never have tolerated any woman who was not subdued. His new era of love-making was as violent as the first had been subtle. He attempted in his strong, selfish fashion to thrust an urgent marriage upon her. But the plague, which now had been stamped out of Halle, was still lingering in the suburbs, and some of the Taust family were stricken with it.

In vain did George Handel press the matter of an immediate marriage. Subservient asjshe was, Dorothea had a greater instinct in her — that of humanity. She refused to leave her relatives till they were convalescent. Plead as he would he could make no impression. Not until April burst in loveliness over the Saale plain did George Handel make his second marriage. The House at Halle where Handel was supposed to have been born, decorated with laurels and the names of his oratorios. George Frideric Handel is Born wasted less had it not been for the confounded plague which had worried and overworked him for nearly a year.

So did Dorothea Taust come to the mansion in the Schlamm, a nervous woman, very fearful of the rather cele- brated personage whom she had married, the old man with lingerings of youth in him still, his certain faithfulness, his extraordinary set sense of duty in everything. As soon as he had married, George Handel shut himself up again to his secret life as he had done before.

It possibly meant very little more to him whether Dorothea Taust faced him across the dinner-table or Anna Oettinger. He was in his fashion extremely sexless to difference in women. He had never philandered ; he had never really understood women. He had never wanted to understand them. They never intrigued him ; he would probably have lived and died a celibate but for ulterior reasons that made him respond in luke- warm fashion to their charms. Either of the two women who married him could and did always count on extreme fidelity, whatever his shortcomings as a husband — and apparently they were many — may have been.

A year after their marriage Dorothea brought into the world a son, a weak child, who died at birth. The Fates still juggled with old Handel. If it were not for the excuse that he ultimately reared one of the greatest children in the world's history, it might be said that he was never meant to bring children to maturity because he did not understand them. So, when on 23rd February , passers down the Nicolai- strasse or Schlamm heard the small cry of a newly-born child come from the big building at the corner, they interpreted nothing in it at all, except that they hoped, no doubt, that the doctor would have better luck this time.

Not that it could signify at all on that February morning that George Frideric Handel had been born into the world. There was the barber-surgeon himself stand- ing white-haired beside the font and looking at the small scrap of humanity carried in the arms of his sister-in-law, Anna Taust. Anna Taust, the curious spinster lady with the warm heart, who, in the process of time, was to drift into the Handel circle and exercise a wonderful influence over this child, be- cause she understood children as neither of the Handels ever understood them.

Whatever her joy in this child may have been, however envious she may have been of her sister Dorothea, who had brought him into the world, it is doubtful if Anna Taust knew but a small part of the elation which the coming of the child had created in the heart of the barber-surgeon. This child was the child of his old age ; it marked the beginning of a new family circle which was his.

After all, the family that had come to him by Anna Oettinger had ceased to count in his life. Few had survived ; those few who reached maturity had crept away and left him in his solitude ; possibly his taciturnity had hastened their departure. Only one of those children had counted in his heart, and that was his son Gottfried, whom the plague had killed three years before. Gottfried, who had done everything he had told him to do, who had become a surgeon as he meant him to be a surgeon, and who had achieved some little fame and much respectability in Halle as the Handels had before him.

He had married well, this Gottfried ; he had raised unto himself a sound practice and had earned a good income. The old barber-surgeon must have seen in this son something of an ideal as it had framed itself in his mind. The churcK on the left ot the illustration. Visions But when Gottfried fell before the plague-storm that swept the streets of Halle he left no issue, only a young widow. Had there been a child the old barber-surgeon might never have married a second time. He wanted some youth about him. All the taciturnity and sacrifice of self to the altar of success had left him a man desolate of heart.

It was this searching for youth which made him marry Dorothea Taust of Giebichen- stein ; it was the same yearning that made him bring into the world George Frideric, whom they were baptizing this day in the Liebfrauenkirche. He would have been a brave fellow who had suggested to the barber-surgeon that day that this child would in the ensuing years make his living by music. It would have horri- fied the barber-surgeon ; it would have been a suggestion of scandal upon the whole Handel family.

Music in those days had failed to find respectability. It was a sort of pedlar's calling, cheap huckstering when all else failed. The family blacklegs turned to music ; people sang in the streets, wrote and sang ephemeral melodies in the taverns, and counted them- selves well paid when the equivalent of a few pence rewarded them. A few escaped to higher spheres, and were included in the select and exclusive choirs that earned for them some halo of respectability.

The barber-surgeon, who had lost Gottfried and found salvation in George Frideric, had higher ambitions for this son. But George Frideric was to disappoint him, he was to frivol with musical instruments ere his parent passed to the Handel tomb. Though his mother Dorothea from the Giebichenstein parsonage was to live to see this child go out 19 George Frideric Handel and find fame in the doubtful ways of music, she never under- stood what it meant. This son was to grow up and depart from her, and would, in the fullness of time, send short messages of affection to her from his sanctuary in England.

But, having no knowledge of music, she never realised his worth. He ultimately became to her a being she had created and sent forth into some strange vortex of public life. She always cared for him, though he departed from her for ever when just emerging from his teens, and when she died Death dealt the greatest blow to this son that his life ever knew. From the time that the christening party left the Lieb- frauenkirche, life for the Handel child was to drop into the common rut of the better-bred Halle children.

Ere the year had ended Pastor Taust of Giebichenstein, left weak and ill as he had been by the plague, passed quietly away, and Fraulein Anna came to live with her sister Frau Dorothea Handel at the Schlamm. Her coming banished all question of the child's education in the tender years.

Frau Dorothea was occupied with other cradles. She raised two girls, one of whom was in later years to have the proud knowledge of her brother's achievements. Upon Anna Taust depended the main up- bringing of this boy, and his mother, left with the nurture of two tender children, watched the influence of Tante Anna work itself upon this first child she had been able to rear.

Of some things concerning that boy she remained unaware, even though Anna Taust clearly understood them. She did not know of his interest in Church music, she did not see him fascinated by the first dawning understanding of the notes of the organ. He went to the Liebfrauenkirche regularly ; to Frau Handel his object in doing so was to serve his Maker as he had been taught to do.

That the organ music in the Liebfrauenkirche stood in the place of his Maker to the boy who groped his way to understanding never occurred to her. And, if it had, she was doubtless so shaped in her mental out- look by the creed of her husband that she would probably have sent young George Frideric to one of the lesser places of wor- ship of simple faith which existed in Halle at the time, and at which music was unknown.

Halle was then a small town confined within the radius of its mediaeval town walls, a town of houses con- structed of wood and plaster covered with thatched roofs. As a house fell into disrepair it was pulled down and a new build- ing created out of the remains of the old, with the addition of more modern material. Moreover, the people of Halle were severely solitary in their existence.

They were situated in the centre of a group of warring tribes, which had fought and triumphed over each other since very early times. Halle was a sort of buffer state ringed about by the denizens of the salt-marshes, a strange people of ancient Wend and Prankish blood, who from the beginning of time had worked the salt wells, and been a law unto themselves — a people so powerful that they were able to support an army of six hundred men.

The glories of the old courts, the moods of successive rulers with the pomps and ceremonies at the old Moritzburg ' in the town, whence archbishops and princes ruled with rods of iron, had kept song alive throughout Halle. And the glorious memory of Halle's court music, which lasted until shortly before the birth of the child George Frideric, was undoubtedly still alive in the people at the time of his infancy. The town choir, and choirs from the schools — choirs that sang in the streets in front of citizens' houses, and thrived on chance charity cast from the windows to put an end to what was too frequently an irritating noise.

Someone was always singing somewhere in public in Halle in those days. Occasionally the singers were given pieces of cloth and a spasmodic education 1 G. To become musical, therefore, was to ally oneself with a species of street vagrants, to descend in public esteem, and to be the certain occupier of a charitable cubicle as the end of it all. Such a prospect for their son jarred badly on the Handels. It was not entirely his fault that the barber-surgeon strove to exterminate, as he might some rank weed, the first interest in music which showed in his son.

The Handel pride was considered a God-given gift above music ; it had found its birth in a great record of honourable men, and it was not going to slip into the mire of common huckstering of sounds and noises if the old barber-surgeon could help it. Aunt Anna, when she cast aside neutrality and threw all the weight of her sympathies to the child in whom the first knowledge of melody was dawning, who took him to the Liebfrauenkirche that he might listen to a wonderful organ on Sundays, and brought him back again, was risking a great deal in what she did.

Had her lack of neutrality been revealed, it is certain that she would not have been tolerated for very long in the Handel household.


In aiding this child to understand the meaning of music to the soul, in cultivating that new-born creed in him, she was hiding a secret sin. It is certain that the barber- surgeon did not know, and equally certain that his wife, Dorothea, did not know that the saintly Anna was leading a double life. If she did smuggle in the clavichord for the child, which the biographers will insist upon, then she was a woman of still greater daring than history has ever credited her with possessing. The barber-surgeon was weary of hearing the various choirs sing daily sacred airs in chorus manner and in parts under the conductorship of a Prsefectus at stated hours in front of the citizens' houses.

Daily repetition may well have urged a certain decision in his mind when thinking about his son : " If that boy ever shows the first inclination towards music or noises disguised as such, I will kill it. Aunt Anna, was deceiv- 1 G. Hertzberg, " Geschichte der Stadt Halle. Tremendously- proud of his rebellion in her secret soul no doubt.

Tram- melled about as they were by the fussation and importance of the barber-surgeon in the Schlamm House, it is so easy to see how it all happened. Probably if there had been no Aunt Anna there might have been no Westminster Abbey for George Frideric, though it is hard to believe that a soul so strewn with melody would have failed to find its destined and appointed place. The greatest characteristic about the barber-surgeon throughout his life had been selfishness. He had been selfish from his youth, and his selfishness had been aided by great strength of personality. His marriage with Anna Oettinger, a diplomatic move for self ; his great honours the result of cleverness, but as cleverly planned.

His second marriage, a sop to self. A supremely selfish, clever man, he had ever been with two weak women, one after the other, vainly striving to play a very inferior second fiddle, a half-dumb instrument in the family orchestra, which was all " George Handel, barber-surgeon of some renown. He had to educate him. Halle at that date was full of schools, both good and bad. There were poor schools and orphan schools in the Glauchau, and in the Vineyards.

There was a school of Catholics, a school of French commune, a great number of private schools. There was also a Jewish school in the town conducted by a Rabbi, and free to pupils. The Rabbis usually came from Poland and were married men, whose wives and children remained in Poland. If, at the end of that time, they came to the end of their earnings they were considered free to go back to Halle for another term and so continue on the jog-trot of life, now here, now there.

It was denied to no one. As often as not the Alms-treasury paid the fees for the boy. The school had a good philosophical and theological library if no standing as a seminary of teaching. It had ten classes, divided irrespective of the children's social standing.

Into this mixed quarter the barber-surgeon sent his son, for no apparent reason revealed by record except to save money. There were good private schools in Halle in plenty, but he avoided them all. And, though he meant his son to be a lawyer, which in those days entailed the best education possible, he decided to save fees by sending him to the Grammar School, a carefully thought-out move which proved a boomerang. For the head of the Grammar School when young George Frideric entered was a music-loving rector Praetorius.

A puritanical spirit of pietism was spreading in Halle at that date, and the head of this school had been caught up in it, and believed in the power of music to develop religious thought.

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It was into the hands of this man that the barber-surgeon unknowingly pushed his son, believing that all the nonsense of music would be worried out of him by the demands of school- work, as the Grammar School work was notoriously excessive and unproductive and diffuse. It led nowhere, but the pupil met and rubbed shoulders with the children of common tradesmen or nobody at all, and picked up a smattering of miscellaneous knowledge, which had no beginning and no end, because it had no object. The alms-child had as good a chance as the child of the notorious barber-surgeon.

The uncouth urchins, who were his companions, and the cramped means of education, must have given the child cause for a diversion of thoughts. They taught him at this seminary 1 Some of Handel's biographers have maintained that he was first a pupil at the Latin School at Halle, but this was not opened till The register of the Stadtkinder town-children school does not contain his name, consequently there is only the Lutheran Gymnasium to which he could have gone.

Unfor- tunately the school register of this seminary was not kept by the Rector Praetorius during the years of Handel's childhood, and was only recontinued in The latter he had already discovered under the protection of Aunt Anna in the mysteri- ous dusk of the Liebfrauenkirche. He had never revealed it even to her. But religious music had an intense fascination for him ; the range of the organ — poor in comparison to the range of that same organ to-day — on which his fingers first learned to play, was the discovery of a new soul seeking its destiny.

When he was not at the Grammar School, he seems to have been left to playing with street companions. He was, as the old barber-surgeon, his father, had been in his youth, intensely lonely. There is no record of the boy George Frideric having found a single friend in his early youth. They were just companions of youth's irresponsible pathway, who pass as unknown as they come. He had the courtyard at the back of the Schlamm and its wide garden as a playground. Beyond it some odd barns and fields. On the town side he had an old courtyard, which still stands with its surrounding buildings as he knew it — the ancient palace of Cardinal Albrecht, a mediaeval ruffian, who played havoc with the Church and the hearts of women.

The child, of course, knew nothing of Cardinal Albrecht or his works and his love passages. But Albrecht had been a sixteenth-century demigod of Halle, who had left out of his riches a rather desolate courtyard between a cramped run of buildings, in which the child George Frideric Handel was to play. The story of that courtyard is worth telling, since it must have been one of the principal haunts of the boy. It stands now, as it stood in his day, opposite the place where he was born, dull and shabby and with all the overburdening sense of lost romance.

The daintily-clad mistresses of the Cardinal who built it have gone down in the dust ; the glories of the Moritzburg, which the Cardinal inhabited, are as a tale that is told. All the memories of high rank, of riches, of life that sailed above that which Halle knew in this age have passed just as worldly things pass in their appointed time, leaving an old courtyard, melancholy, seldom stirred by the sound of feet. The courtyard is still as he knew it ; from his bedroom window he must have viewed its solemn entrance.

Originally 25 George Frideric Handel the main building in it had been a chapel, but in the early- sixteenth century the Cardinal Albrecht found a Court favourite in one Hans von Schonitz. He built himself a palace in this courtyard, which had a single entrance from the Schlamm, and which in its day consisted of a row of stately buildings, including the Kiihlebrunnen cool-born or well.

This Kiihlebrunnen, the possession of the town, received the only wine and spirit licence apart from the Rath-cellar. To construct this palace Schonitz had used a great deal of material from the Church of St Ulrich ; he accumulated building material from anywhere without paying for it. Most of it was purloined from churches which he thought needed pulling down. Thus he slowly built his palace, an ugly, mediaeval building still. On the first floor there is a large room, where the Town Council used to hold their meetings, and underneath was their spacious cellar.

In a room by the side of it used to stand in the days of the child Handel, a very old wooden bedstead — it existed until And it was in this room that the Cardinal used to visit his mistresses ; the room had a secret staircase going in from a small door in the courtyard. The Cardinal had no objection to the barefaced robbery of his purse, since he could make good the deficiencies by heavier taxation on the people of Halle.

But when von Schonitz in this building, every brick of which, apart from those purloined, the Cardinal had paid for, stole away one of the Cardinal's favourite mis- tresses, the matter came to a climax. The Cardinal dragged his favourite out of his lair, and beheaded him in It was the only thing to do. Still the palace yard, no better than an East End London alley in these days, went on undisturbed and became the haunt of a lonely child, who probably knew nothing of its story.

The building that was a palace and its yard still stand ; all the romance gone from the desolate windows and doorways, uncurtained and grim, changing itself not at all, but standing sure and defiant against the ravages of time, long 1 G. Hertzberg, "Geschichte der Stadt Halle," vol. Opposite Handel's birthplace at Halle, where Handel played as a child. A Feat of Surgery after the scuffle of those young feet over its stones had ceased.

Some miles distant from the town of Halle is Weissenfels, which at this period was celebrated chiefly because the Duke kept his Court there. Much of the pomp, which in earlier times had annoyed the citizens of Halle with endless restric- tions and ceremonies, had since passed to Weissenfels. See: Beck, L. Adams Lily Moresby Adams , See: Tamayo y Baus, Manuel, See: Scott, Leader, See: Lyall, Edna [pseud. See: Arnim, Elizabeth von, See: Grimthorpe, Edmund Beckett, Baron, See: Hay, Ian, Wechseln zu: Navigation , Suche. A Aaron, S. English Ackland, T.

Greek Aesop, ? Performed During the Years English as Editor Allen, P. English Allen, William H. Alfred George , Alphen, Hieronymus van, nl. Burn stick! English as Editor Altsheler, Joseph A. Benjamin History of the United States, Vol. Que se creia existiese en la Cordillera, al sud de Valdivia. Spanish as Editor Angelkot, Hermannus, Jr. For the Use of Schools and Families. Enlarged and Revised Edition. Series V. Declan of Ardmore and Life of St. Anson English Anstey, F. Roister Doister Written, probably also represented, before Agnes English as Translator Arthur, T.

Slater, J. In: eLib. Juni Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Volltext 2 A 2. Belle Kendrick 2. John Stevens Cabot , 2. Clair 2. Carl William , 2. Thomas Suter , 2. Mercer Graeme Mercer , 2. Colburn Francis Colburn 2. John Stowell , 2. Bion 2. Cottrell's Subscription 2. Meer Hassan 2. Glover Morrill , 2. Percy Stafford , 2. Anne Crosby Emery , 2. Joseph Alexander , 2. Christopher Columbus , 2. Benjamin 2. Thomas 2. Margaret-Ann 2.

Day, 2. Louis 2. Fremantle 2. Timothy Shay , 2. Thomas Ramsden 2. Jane Goodwin , 2. Windslow 2. William Edmondstoune , 2. Benjamin Guy , 3. Joseph Morris , 3. Henry Christopher , 3. Nisbet, 3. Granville 3. Woods 3. Robert Michael , 3. Robert Stawell , Sir, 3. Mary Ellen 3. Edmund James , 3. Horatio , 3. Maynard Anna Maynard 3. Florence Louisa , 3. Sabine , 3. Benjamin 3. Helene 3. Stewart John Stewart 3. James Matthew , 3. Elijah Porter , 3. John Daniel , 3. William Malone , 3. Katharine 3. Hannah S. Frank Lyman Frank , 3. Charles Edwin Woodrow , 3.

Charles Austin , 3. Raymond, 3. Adams Lily Moresby Adams , 3. Louisa 3. Isabella Mary, 3. Cawdor 3.

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